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新SAT阅读中的字面和引申含义如何辨别

548人浏览 2018-08-02 分享到|

  众所周知,SAT或ACT考试成绩在美国大学申请中占有一定的地位,尽管美国的大学并不是唯分数论,但是对于要求提供SAT或ACT考试成绩的学校来说,申请者如果能取得较好的SAT或ACT成绩就会为申请增加成功的砝码。

  SAT2,亦称SATII,或SAT Subject,是美国大学录取应届高中生时采用的学业水平考试。SAT2考试采用全球统一试卷,因此其成绩具有全球可比性,是衡量不同地区学生的学业水平的重要参考,在录取实际操作过程中往往替代高中成绩单。不同于SAT的综合能力测试,SAT2是一种专项水平测试,考察学生某一科目的水平。目前SAT2的科目分为数学、科学、语言、英语、历史与社会科学五大类。其中数学类有数学一和数学二两门,科学类有物理、化学、生物三门,语言类有法语、德语、西班牙语、中文、日语、韩语、希伯莱语、拉丁语等十二门,英语类只有英语文学一门;历史与社会科学类有美国历史和世界历史两门。以上加起来共计二十门考试。目前北美地区每年有7次考试,分别在1月,3月,5月,6月,10月,11月,12月的第一个周六;世界其他地区3月没有考试,其他6次考试时间与北美相同。

  新SAT阅读的难点之一就是掌握句子的引申含义(underlying meaning),快速辨别出字面含义和引申含义就意味着阅读的理解和答题正确率的保障,那么问题来了,如何辨别?下面我们来详细分析。


如何辨别新SAT阅读中的字面和引申含义


  首先我们来了解一下什么是字面含义,什么又是引申含义:

  字面含义(literal meaning): 只要按照英文单词逐字逐句翻译,就知道句子的意思。

  引申含义(underlying meaning): 即使按照英文单词逐字逐句翻译,也不知道句子的意思;需要通过字里行间的某种联系,才能知道作者的意图和所表达的含义。

  在新SAT阅读中,考察到引申含义的形式大概分为三种:

  (1)各种修辞手法

  (2)“不相关”句子

  (3)按照不同的文体,引申含义的句子的比重不一样

  引申一:“不相关”句子

  这里说的不相关,是指乍看起来与文章中心内容毫无瓜葛,但是,考试文章无废话,所有这些貌似“不相关”的语句,都是考察理解程度的考点。如下:

  例1:直接引语(direct quotation):支持原文的言论或者主张。

  A Kikongo proverb states, "A tree cannot stand without its roots." It seems such obvious wisdom now, a well-worn cliché in our era in which everything truly insightful has already been said. But all clichés derive their endurance from their truth, and my ancestors who coined this adage were sending a clear and powerful message to their descendants: a people cannot flourish without their life-giving foundations in the past.

  例2:文中排比(Parallelism) 多用来拓充文章篇幅,所有排比句共同支持一个中心思想或者主张,不必拘泥于任何一处排比分句的具体含义。

  As she wrote a final letter on her typewriter—she did hate letting the old machine go—Georgia did considerable philosophizing about the irony of working for things only to the end of giving them up. She had waded through snow-drifts and been trenched in pouring rains, she had been frozen with the cold and prostrated with the heat, she had been blown about by Chicago wind until it was strange there was any of her left in one piece, she had had front doors—yes, and back doors too—slammed in her face, she had been the butt of the alleged wit of menials and hirelings, she had been patronized by vapid women as the poor girl who must make her living some way, she had been roasted by—but never mind—she had had a beat or two!

  引申二:各种修辞手法

  用一些实例来展示,相信同学们看了会更好理解一些:

  (1)引经据典direct quotation

  Critics couldn't resist reviewing them together, mocking the pair, even then, as "The Hair Poets," "The Braids of the East," and "The New Asian Poe-tresses."评论家用了三个名号来表示这两个人的相似性。

  (2)设问句/反问句Rhetorical question

  But what do these words mean? How do they create magic?请看下文,下文有实质性内容

  (3)比喻Metaphor

  We have gazed at one another across the transatlantic divide like a child seeing itself in the mirror for the first time.我们互相凝望。

  (4)类比Analogy

  Since my command of the crayon was greater than my command of writing, in a sense my drawings became my poems.我喜欢绘画和诗歌。

  (5)排比Parallelism

  She had waded through snow-drifts and been trenched in pouring rains, she had been frozen with the cold and prostrated with the heat, she had been blown about by Chicago wind until it was strange there was any of her left in one piece…她受了不少苦。

  (6)拟人Personification

  Stars winked on in a darkening sky.夜空有星星。

  引申三:不同文体,引申含义的句子的比重不一样

  新SAT的五篇阅读文章体裁不同, 大致分为:自然科学(natural science), 社会科学(social science),议论文(argument), 小说(fiction) 。不同体裁的文章在引申含义的句子的比重上是不一样的。如图所示:

\

  如图所示:在小说和议论文中,考生应该着重捕捉和理解引申含义的句子,因为他们将是解题的关键。

  在议论文中,引申含义的句子的理解重点是:作者的态度和意图。

  在小说中,引申含义的句子的理解重点是:人物特征,叙述人视角,情境差别等。

  以上就是今天分享的SAT考试相关内容了,如果还想获得更多SAT与sSAT区别和SAT与toefl,或者想要了解更多的SAT与高考或者SAT与托福的区别,都可以关注我们的课窝SAT考试网,在线联系我们,我们也会继续为大家带来更多干货!


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新SAT阅读中的字面和引申含义如何辨别

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